Tuesday, April 17, 2018

The Rise Of Tequila In The 18th & 19th Centuries

Tequila is a pale flame that burns through walls and flies over roofs to soothe one’s feeling of despair.
--Álvaro Mutis, a Colombian poet

Mezcal is the oldest distilled spirit in the Americas, thought to extend back nearly 500 years when Spaniards or Filipinos introduced distillation equipment to the country. There is also an intriguing theory, which still requires more supporting evidence, that the indigenous peoples of Mexico might have independently created their own distillation equipment long before the arrival of the Europeans. Nonetheless, the precursor to mezcal was a fermented spirit called Pulque, which was also made from the agave plant, and extends back over 1000 years. Thus, each sip of mezcal brings with it a sense of history, a connection to Mexico's past.

At its simplest, mezcal is any distilled spirit made from the agave plant, which is more commonly called maguey in Mexico. Thus, mezcal is an expansive term, encompassing such agave distillates as Tequila, Bacanora, Racilla and others. You probably didn't know that tequila is really a type of mezcal. So how did tequila acquire its own identity?

Let's explore some of the history of mezcal and tequila, primarily during the 18th and 19th centuries, and see the evolution. Some of this history will correct errors in the "commonly accepted knowledge" about tequila, and I've provided numerous sources to support my article. More research is certainly warranted, especially in some of the new avenues I've uncovered.

Initially, there was just mezcal, and it lacked any sense of place. No matter where it was produced in Mexico, it was simply known as mezcal. At some point though, specific areas of Mexico became well known for the quality of their mezcal, and were referred to by reference to their area of production. This happened, at least in part, because that mezcal was being sold outside the area of its origin, and had acquired a certain reputation. It probably also cost more than other mezcal which wasn't known by its place of origin.

Mezcal production in the area surrounding Tequila apparently began around the 1730s. According to Miguel Claudio Jiménez Vizcarra, the indigenous people of Amatitán, which is close to nine miles south of Tequila, were the first to distill mezcal in the area. Over time, mezcal production spread to the nearby areas, and the town of Tequila may have gotten involved in distillation around the 1760s. Unfortunately, Amatitán had significant water issues and as Tequila had an abundant source of water, it became the more popular area for production and distillation.

Established as a Spanish naval base in 1768, the port of San Blas became especially important to the mezcal trade, especially when an eventual road connected Tequila with San Blas, helping tequila become more known outside of Mexico. San Blas became significant as a connection to Spanish settlements in California, a base for exploration of the northwest coast, and for mercantile traffic. All of the people that now worked at the port also became a new market for mezcal and other alcoholic beverages. In addition, the naval vessels commonly purchased those beverages for their lengthy treks, which also helped to spread knowledge of mezcal.

Some of the earliest documented distilleries in the Tequila region are described in La construcción cultural y económica del tequila by Rogelio Luna Zamora (2015). There is a chart listing a number of known "tabernas" of mezcal-tequila in the 18th & early 19th centuries, noting the name of the distillery, owner, date of founding, and its location. The earliest is the San Martín de las cañas, founded in 1756, at the Hacienda de San Martín, though the name of  the owner appears to be unknown. The next taberna was founded in 1758, by the Familia Cuervo y Montaño at the Hacienda de Cuisillos, though the name of the distillery is unknown. La Chorrera, founded in 1777, was owned by Malaquías Cuervo and located at the Rancho de San Juan de Dios de las Chorreras.

In 1785, King Charles III officially banned the production of agave-based alcoholic beverages in Mexico, including pulque and mezcal, to protect the importation of Spanish wines and spirits. Despite its illegality, pulque and mezcal production continued. Like Prohibition in the U.S., people in Mexico still wanted these alcohols so some of them took the risk to make moonshine pulque and mezcal. The government's enforcement of this prohibition also wasn't too forceful, especially as they could earn money from its production.

In José de Gálvez, Visitor-General of New Spain (1765-1771), by Herbert Ingram Priestly (1916), there is a passage about pulque which stated, “The viceroys would have gladly eradicated the evil, as would the clergy, but the beverage was an immemorial heritage of the indigines, and its use could not be prevented.” The government knew any prohibition would ultimately fail, so they were more practical, collecting their due. The book also mentioned, “Caldos, the term applied to entry duties collected on wines, brandies, and vinegar—to which were added, during the latter part of the 18th century, revenues derived from the manufacture in New Spain of spiritous liquors—produced in 1785-89 289,060 pesos; the cost of administering the revenue was 118,010, leaving 171,050 pesos for the term, or 34,210 pesos annual revenue net.” As can be seen, despite the ban, the government was still collecting duties on pulque and mescal that was manufactured.

It is also during this period of prohibition that the first differentiation of mezcal by its place of origin can be found. In the Memorias de la Academia Mexicana de Historia (July-September 1958), there is an article titled Brevajes en la Colonia. La fontana mexicana del siglo XVIII en la mezcla de licores, written by M. Carrera Estampa. One of the passages in the article states, "En 1789 en el Real de Minas de San Pedro de Mazapil, en Zacatecas, se consumía mezcal procedente de Tequila con el nombre “Vino mezcal de Guadalajara”. Basically, this means that mezcal from Tequila had acquired the special name of "Vino mezcal de Guadalajara." Thus, at this time, it seems that mezcal from Tequila was being sold outside of the region, and was sought after because of its reputation.

Finally, in 1795, after ten years of the prohibition, King Carlos IV overturned the ban on the production of agave spirits. It is this same year that an unnamed distillery was established by José Ma. Guadalupe de Cuervo at the Cofradía de Ánimas. As the prohibition had just been lifted, this distillery received the first official license to produce mezcal from Tequila. And this is the origin of the famous Cuervo distillery.

As the 19th century began, new distilleries continued to open, and one of the most notable was La Antigua Cruz ("The Old Cross"), founded in 1805 by Jose Maria Castaneda in Tequila, said to be the oldest registered distillery in Tequila. Eventually, this distillery would become the Sauza Tequila distillery. Once Mexico acquired independence from Spain in 1821, the number of distilleries in Tequila increased even more, and the mezcal from Tequila started becoming well known and sought after for its quality.

One of the earliest newspaper references to mezcal from Tequila in the 19th century is in El Sol (October 13, 1824), which stated, under "Announcements,": "En el meson de san Dimas calle de las Moras, se espende por mayor o menor vino mescal de Tequila legitimo; lo se que noticia al publico para su inteligencia." This refers to the "mescal wine of authentic Tequila," clearly setting it apart from normal mezcal. As this passage is plainly presented, without any further explanation, it seems that the average newspaper reader was already familiar with "authentic Tequila." This is even more interesting as by 1830, there were only about nine documented distilleries in Tequila.

In Le Mexique (1830)J. C. Beltrami, an Italian author and explorer, detailed his journey to Mexico in 1823, including a visit to the area of Tequila. He wrote a single reference about mezcal, "Le maguey, par la grande quantite de sa liqueur, sert a former du pulque et de l'eau-de-vie, qu'on appelle Vino mescal." This roughly translates as, "The maguey, by the great quantity of its liquor, serves to form pulque and brandy, which is called Vino mescal." It would have been nice to have more detail here but it couldn't have impressed Beltrami sufficiently, for whatever reason.

La construcción cultural y económica del tequila, by Rogelio Luna Zamora (2015), discussed how many small tequileros disappeared during the first half of the 19th century, but one of the most constant was the Hacienda de San Martín, which had been founded in 1756. By 1840,  it "...was producing 400 barrels per week (66-liter barrels), which meant a distillation for that decade close to one million liters per year, if we consider that they worked 40 weeks a year. Probably in that decade, the production of tequila in the whole microregion reached two million liters per year." The growth of tequila during this time is impressive.

This same article also noted that the distilleries of the town of Tequila produced about 55,000 barrels in 1835, with about one-third of that production being exported out of Jalisco. By 1843, the number of barrels being exported out of Jalisco was reduced down to about 3,700 barrels and in 1845, the amount had decreased even more, down to 1,692 barrels. These exports were primarily sent through the San Blas port.

There were a couple additional newspapers references, over the next 35 years, differentiating mezcal from Tequila. In the El Monitor Republicano (July 11, 1849), there are lists of various shipments including separate references for "3 barriles mescal" and "3 barriles mescal Tequila," showing there was a difference with the mezcal of Tequila. A reference in El Universal (December 20, 1850) deals with taxes on cargo, stating ".., cada botija de vino mescal de Tequila o Pinos pagara seis granos;.." This roughly translates as ".., each botija of mescal wine of Tequila or Pinos will pay six grains;..." Once again, there is a specific reference to the mezcal of Tequila.

Within Intoxicated Identities: Alcohol's Power in Mexican History and Culture by Tim Mitchell (2004), you'll find additional insight into how Tequila became more prominent in the middle of the 19th century. For example, "The patronal festivals and marketing fairs of other localities were key to achieving initial brand-name recognition for “Tequila.” In addition, "Jalisco had the good fortune to be the native region of a superior species of bluish-tinted agave (now known as Agave tequilana Weber)." Plus, pulque was still the most popular alcohol in Mexico so it was still being produced on a large scale across Mexico, except in the region of Tequila which chose to concentrate on producing tequila instead.

With this burgeoning trade in the mezcal of Tequila, when was the first shipment to the U.S.? The Sauza Tequila distillery claims that they were the first, in 1873, to export tequila to the U.S. You'll find other sources making a similar about the Jose Cuervo distillery, that they too sent the first tequila to the U.S. in 1873. However, if you consult the Jose Cuervo website, you'll notice that the company alleges they shipped tequila to California, through the port of San Blas, in 1852, though the site doesn't provide any documentation to support this allegation.

During my own research, I located documentation of a shipment in 1852 to California though unfortunately the reference does not indicate the source of the mezcal of "authentic Tequila." In the Daily Alta California, (July 22, 1852), there is a brief advertisement noting "Mescal--De Tequila Legitimo--1000 gals, ex, Ser.na. from San Blas, now landing at Sacramento street wharf, for sale by..." This could be the first "authentic tequila" shipment to the U.S. and it's certainly possible that it was sent by Cuervo, though the advertisement doesn't specify the producer. What other distillery at that time had the production capacity to ship 1,000 gallons, a substantial amount, to California? This documentation also disproves the claim that Sauza, in 1873, was the first tequila distillery to export to the U.S.

In 1854, Ernest Vigneaux, a Frenchman, traveled to Mexico, became a prisoner of war for a short time, and left the country in 1855. He wrote about his experiences in Souvenirs d’un Prisonnier de Guerre au Mexique, 1854–1855 (Memories of a Prisoner of War in Mexico), and mentioned Tequila in a few passages. One of the key references is, "De meme que Cognac a donné son nom aux eaux-de-vie françaises en général, Tequila donné le sien à l'aguardiente mescal." This roughly translates as "Just as Cognac gave its name to French eau-de-vie (fruit brandy) in general, Tequila have its name to mescal." Ernest clearly noted the quality of the meszal from Tequila, considering it to be the pinnacle of mezcal production.

Another important reference is found within the El Omnibus (January 8, 1855), which noted the price of a barrel of "vino de Tequila" at $20 (Mexican) though there wasn't a listed price, or even a mention, of "mezcal." This might be the first documented reference to "Tequila" on its own, without any reference to mezcal. Tequila was acquiring its own separate identity, though the process wasn't yet complete.

More "Mescal de Tequila" for sale in California. The Clamor Publico (CA), May 30, 1857, published an advertisement for Francisco De P. Rodriguez, in Los Angeles, who sold a variety of items, including "Mescal de Tequila."

In 1858, Don Cenobio Sauza journeyed to Tequila to visit a relative and decided to remain there, eventually getting a job at the tequila distillery of José Antonio Gómez Cuervo.

In the Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica, there is a lengthy article, Memoria Sobre El Maguey Mexicano Y Sus Diversos Productos, written by D. Manuel Payno (August 1864). There are a couple references to Tequila, serving to differentiate it from other mezcal. First, you'll find: "El vino mezcal se elabora en grande escala en Guadalajara y San Luis Potosí. El de Guadalajara conocido generalmente con el nombre de tequila, se consume en todo el pais." This passage notes that the mezcal of Guadalajara is generally known as "tequila." Second, you'll find: "El mezcal puro es uno de los licores espirituosos, mas estimados en el merca do de México. Este licor y el tequila que se fabrica en el Departamento de Jalisco, suelen confundirse en el olor y en el sabor, con el ginebra de Holanda." That roughly translates as "Pure mezcal is one of the most spirited liqueurs, most prized in the Mexican market. This liquor and the tequila that is manufactured in the Department of Jalisco, are often confused in the smell and flavor, with the gin of Holland."

In The Evening Telegraph (September 1, 1868-Philadelphia), there is an interesting article, A Marvelous Plant, which discusses the myriad uses of the maguey plant, noting: "No account of Mexico can well omit a notice of its common vegetable wonder, the maguey." The article later states: "From the maguey verdi come the mescal and tequila, one a winish alcohol, and the other a gin, made in Jalisco and Guadalajara." There is a clear separation here between mezcal and tequila, with a rather significant difference in style.

The Chicago Tribune (December 18, 1870) notes: "There is a superior variety of the mescal produced near Guadalajara, and called after the village in which it is made, "Tequila." This costs more, and is sent to the City of Mexico, and elsewhere, as something very choice for a present to one's friends." Again, Tequila has its own identity, and is seen as a higher quality drink as compared to normal mezcal.

The Weekly Arizona Miner (July 13, 1872) also printed an interesting article about the maguey plant. The article mentions that common Mezcal usually sells for about 6 1/4 cents per bottle, but  "...certain localities produce favorite brands which bring larger prices than the ordinary article,..." Though Tequila isn't specifically mentioned, its prior mentions would seem indicate this passage would be applicable.

Some intriguing statistics were mentioned in Out West (August 22, 1872, Colorado), publishing that the "Tequila District"has a population of about 60,000 people, and that 25,000 of them are "... engaged in raising and manufacturing whiskey from the mescal or century plant;.." Besides the error of equating whiskey to mescal, it is amazing that over 40% of the population was involved in the mescal industry. This industry produced about 3000 tons, or 3000-4000 barrels, annually. When we consider that 20 years before, 1000 gallons were exported to California, that is comparably a huge amount considering production levels at this point.

In 1873, Don Cenobio Sauza decided to head out on his own, purchasing a tequila distillery, the former La Antigua Cruz. He renamed the distillery La Perseverancia and it became the foundation of the Sauza empire. At this time, Don Sauza also allegedly began shipping tequila to the U.S., though, and despite his claims, he was not the first to do so.

The El Padre Cobos (November 2, 1873), and a number of other issues during the next few months, posted an ad: "Gran Lecheria! En la calle de la Alcaiceria entre los numeros 27 y 28 se vende leche pura garantizada desde las cinco de la manana adelante y chocolate superior de varias clases, al estilo de Guadalajara. Proximamente se recibera de esa ciudad un abudante surtido de vino de Pechuga febrido in Tequila, Frijol garbancillo y Cigarros de la Conchita y el Buen Gusto todo legitimo y a precios comodos." This ad is fascinating as it may be the first mention of "Vino de Pechuga" being made in Tequila.

The El Libreto (January 4, 1875) also ran an advertisement for "... del Pechuga legitimo y Tequila puro de la mejor clase." This ad mentions "pure" Tequila of the best kind, and it clearly discusses Tequila on its own, and not just as mezcal.

In the Pacific Rural Press (April 7, 1877), there is a passage, "The city of Tequila is the great manufactory of the universal drink distilled from the maguey plant, which in this locality seems to be the best in Mexico. Nearly the whole city is made up of distilleries, and long before you enter its precincts you can smell the fumes of this horrid liquor. Vast fortunes have been realized by those engaged in its manufacture." We see that Tequila is once again is said to be the best in Mexico, that much of the city is dedicated to Tequila production, and that it has earned some people significant income.

How much Tequila was being produced at this point? In La construcción cultural y económica del tequila, by Rogelio Luna Zamora (2015), there is reference to a Treasury Report from 1877-1878, offered a comparison of mescal and tequila, in regards to number of barrels, number of liters and value. In 1878, tequila production consisted of about 98,000 barrels, comprising 6.4 million liters and valued at $1.17 Million. On the other hand, mescal production consisted of about 56,000 barrels, comprising 3.7 million liters and valued at $570,000. As tequila production was almost twice that of mescal, it is another reason why tequila became so prominent during this century.

The La Patria (February 1, 1879) ran an advertisement from a seller, Nicolas Andrade, of Tequila and Pechuga. The ad lists the prices, in Mexican dollars, for various containers, from a cup to a barrel. It is interesting to see that Pechuga generally cost twice as much as Tequila. A cup of "Grande Tequila" costs $0.03 while a cup of Pechuga cost $0.06. A bottle of Tequila cost $0.37 while a bottle of Pechuga cost $1.00. A Jar of Tequila cost $3.50 while a Jar of Pechuga cost $7.00. A Barrel of Tequila cost $25. As earlier mentioned, a barrel of Tequila in 1855 cost $20, so the price didn't rise significantly over the course of 24 years.

More prices were provided by the El Municipio Libre (April 3, 1879), in an advertisement by a liquor store. Mescal de Tierra Caliente cost $1.50 for a bottle and $20.00 for a Box (though there is no indication how much the box contains). Tequila Superior cost $3.00 for a bottle and $40.00 for a Box. These prices are higher than the other advertisement.

The Sun (May 2, 1880-New York) wrote "At Tequila, a little town in the State of Jalisco to the north of Guadalajara, a very superior kind of mezcal is manufactured, which takes its name from the town, and is really a palatable beverage." We once again see that the mezcal from Tequila has continued to take on its own identity, being known simply at "Tequila."

In the Los Angeles Herald (April 25, 1882), one of their articles stated, "Mescal of Tequila, the popular beverage of the Mexicans, and now so highly appreciated by Americans, can be had only at Guerrero's, corner Upper Main and Marchessault streets." It is interesting to see that Tequila is now considered popular in the U.S.

The New-York Tribune (November 28, 1884) printed, in an article about pulque, that, "It is said that one can get "deader" drunk, and remain so longer, on a smaller quantity of tequila than any other known liquid, although it is as colorless as water and almost as tasteless." For some, tequila has a bad reputation, though we can't deny the possibility that some of this negativity may have also been due to racism.

The Wichita Daily Eagle (April 24, 1886) paints a better picture of tequila, noting: "Briefly, this wonderful flower of Mexico is then made into a sort of whisky, called tequila--pronounced te-hee-la. This tequila is rather a hot and pepperish drink, but physicians advise strangers to drink it in preference to either the whisky or brandy to be bought in Mexico. The after-effects, as compared to other drinks, are said to be nil."

In the 1887 edition of The Mexican Guide by Thomas A. Janvier, which appears to be a travel guide of sorts, it mentions that “A strong distilled spirit is made from the root of the maguey, the best variety of which is the tequila de pechuga. It has something the taste of Scotch whiskey. It costs seventy-five cents a bottle.” This is a reference to Pechuga being the highest quality type of tequila and it even provides a price for it at this time, a mere seventy-five cents.

The Indianapolis Journal (April 03, 1887) printed an article that was also very negative toward Tequila, noting: "Tequila, unless first diluted, is a fearful liquid to take into the stomach. It is, however, probably not so injurious as bad whisky, being, in the language of the patent pill advertisements, "purely vegetable", and not doctored with drugs and fusel-oil." The article then continues: "It is not pleasant in taste to the beginner, and stays with the drinker entirely to closely and much too long in the the matters of odor and bad after-effects. It is difficult to determine what a man will not use as a stimulant, but certainly tequila--with a flavor of salty gin--is not a beverage which anyone whose taste is not perverted would "hanker" after." Again though, Tequila stands on its own, separate from mezcal.

According to Intoxicated Identities: Alcohol's Power in Mexican History and Culture by Tim Mitchell (2004), the construction of the Mexican railroad system, especially the completion of the Guadalajara to Mexico City line in 1888, create a boom for tequila producers. In 1889, ".., the tequila tycoons of Jalisco had already shipped 238, 458 liters of their precious mezcal to the nation’s capital."

This negativity continued in the Barton County Democrat (November 14, 1889, Kansas), where their article stated: "...tequila, a most atrocious drink, which looks like gin, harmless enough to all appearances, but which goes down your throat like a wave of fire, and a few glasses of which will make you drunk clear to your fingertips." The article also stated: "This liquid leaves a delicate suggestion of tar and red pepper in your mouth, and, if drunk after eating a certain kind of domestic fruit, it is very dangerous, and in many cases results very disastrously for the imbiber."

In The Morning Call (May 18, 1891, San Francisco), there are some interesting items, such as: "The City of Mexico drinks 250,000 pints of pulque daily, or a pint per capita, which ratio prevails generally throughout Mexico, pulque being the national beverage, ..." The article then goes on: "Mescal distilleries are very simple and more secret than a moonshiner's still." It also provides some additional information on pricing, with: "In Arizona for twenty-five years past mescal has averaged $2.50 gallon new with $1 added for each year of maturity. A higher grade article is called tequila and is worth over $10 per gallon."

This article indicates that mescal and tequila have been imported into Arizona since about 1866, which predates Sauza's claim to being the first to export tequila into the U.S. in 1873, but is later than the 1952 shipment of tequila to California. The price of tequila, in U.S. dollars, is over four times higher than that of ordinary mezcal.

You can find additional prices for Mezcal in the Boletín de Agricultura Minería e Industrias (January 1, 1892) A barrel of "Mezcal Tequila, buena clase" is priced from $10.75-$11 (Mexican) and a barrel of "Mezcal Tequila, doble o de punta" (double or pointed) from $18-$20 (Mexican). The passage doesn't explain what is meant by "double or pointed."

In El Fronterizo (March 19, 1892-Arizona), there is some information on the amount of tequila being produced. The newspaper writes, "Ferrocarril proyectado en Jalisco. se habla muy seriamente en guadalajara de un proyecto de Ferrocarril de guadalajara a Tequila, pueblo que esta a 64 kilometros de distancia y en el cual se fabrican cosa de 200 barriles de tequila diarios. Se calcula que ademas de esta carga se trasportaria muchismo grano de las haciendas que hay por alli." The passage discusses a railway project which is intended to unite Tequila to Guadalajara, noting that Tequila produces about 200 barrels each day.

The Wood County Reporter (August 27, 1896, Wisconsin) has an article, Vintages of Mexico, which discusses pulque, mezcal and tequila. It begins, "The special drinks of Mexico are pulque, mescal, and tequila." That shows that at this time, mescal and tequila are considered separate entities. "As far as the alcoholic strength of the tequila is concerned, the same is about equal to that of common whisky, and likewise in its effects. If taken moderately, however, in case of poor appetite, a few thimblefuls act as an excellent tonic, and a small dose taken before retiring at night has a quieting effect. It is not advisable for a person to take much tequila and he who takes none at all is still better off."

The Norfolk Virginian (November 05, 1896) states: "The sum raised by the government of Mexico from the manufacture of tequila, one of the native intoxicants, is about $500,000 annually." This is an interesting statistic, touching on the size of the tequila industry at this time, and would be the equivalent today of about $13.8 million.

More negativity toward tequila came from the Scientific American Supplement (January 2, 1897), in the article, Beverages of Mexico, by Isabel N. Catlin. Its dismal view of mezcal and tequila states: “Mescal is described as tasting like a mixture of gasoline, gin and electricity. Tequila is even worse, and is said to incite murder, riot and revolution.”

The Grenada Sentinel (April 17, 1897-Mississippi) published an article on Maguey, and mentioned tequila, and its effect on the drinker. "Pulque produces an exhilaration, but not a drunk; mescal brings out the ruling passion in a man to a limited extent according to the quantity imbibed; tequila transforms the drinkers' surroundings into a purgatory or paradise, as his conscience most naturally pictures:.."

The Scranton Tribune (May 08, 1897) published an article about Mexico stating, "Tequila and mescal are distillations from different varieties of the maguey, the heart of the plant being roasted before it is distilled. These liquors are heavy and for the most part vile. It is said that a very small quantity of mescal has been known to cause a large sized revolution in days gone by."  Another negative comment on Mexico's spirits.

As to tequila's alleged potency, the Rock Island Argus (May 29, 1897, Illinois) provides a humorous comment, stating tequila is "... a brandy, and three swallows of it will make a man go home and steal his own trousers." 

The El Paso Daily Herald (April 7, 1899) provided some intriguing information on "Mexican Agriculture" for the year 1897. This was the first time an official document had been compiled. There were 3,101 haciendas in Mexico, with 279 being for pulque and 134 for mezcal. Tequila is not specifically mentioned in this figure so it may possibly have been included in the mezcal number. Other figures mention the number of hectoliters and the value of various alcoholic beverages, including pulque (about 2.6 million hectoliters & $4.9 million in value) and mescal & tequila (about 399,000 hectoliters & $4.1 million in value).

First, we can see that although much more pulque is produced than mezcal & tequila, it is much less expensive, so that the values are much closer. A hectoliter is equivalent to one hundred liters. Thus, the amount of mezcal & tequila comprised 39,900,000 liters, the equivalent of 4.4 million cases of 750ml bottles. The report also stated that "... the people of Mexico consumed 50 liters of alcoholic stimulants per capita in the year 1897, and spent per person $1.30 for their drink."

The Weekly Pantagraph (July 28, 1899-Illinois) published an article about the maguey plant. It also mentions that, "Tequila is an alcoholic liquor, used both for medicinal purposes and as a beverage." It continues, "Unlike pulque, tequila is a perfectly clear liquid, and improves in strength and quality with age. The profits and revenues derived from this product, while somewhat less than that of pulque, are still very large." The article also states, "The largest tequila distilleries are located at the town of Tequila, eighteen miles northwest of Guadalajara, each of which establishments pays the government a monthly tax of $500 for the privilege of manufacturing the spirits."

By 1892, there were 47 distilleries operating in the state of Jalisco, 13 of them in Tequila itself. The future for the next century looked bright. Tequila had its own separate identity from mezcal and it seemed that it would continue to gain converts in the U.S.

"On the surface, te­quila knows no borders, but some climates are more favorable, just as some hours seem to have been wisely designed to be­ long to tequila... It is at the highest twilight of doubt and per­plexity that tequila teaches us a consoling lesson, its ever­ present voice, its wholehearted indulgency.
--Álvaro Mutis, a Colombian poet

(This article was revised/expanded on 4/19/2018.)

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